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真空釬焊爐故障及排除方法

作者:蔡東俊 人氣:160838 日期:2022-01-22 16:27:16

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真空釬焊爐日常故障及排除方法:

 

故障出現現象

  故障產生的原因

真空釬焊爐故障排除解決方法

溫度控制失靈

1、熱電偶斷絲

2、溫控儀表故障

1、更換新的熱電偶。

2、按溫控儀表說明書進行檢修。

真空釬焊爐達不到極限真空度或

抽空時間太長

1、真空釬焊爐真空系統故障

2、真空釬焊爐爐體泄漏、真空釬焊爐內換熱器漏水。

3、真空計電阻規管、電離規管損壞

1、檢查 排除 。

2 、檢查真空釬焊爐內換熱器。

3、更換真空計的規管。

升溫功率達不到額定值

1、磁性調壓器故障

2、石墨加熱管污染,電阻值升高

3、新石墨管電阻率和調壓器不匹配。

1、檢修 磁性調壓器 。

2、更換新石墨加熱管。

3、檢查石墨管電阻率。

處理零件表面不亮

1、冷卻氣體不純

2、真空度太低

1、確保氮(氬)氣純度99.9996%以上。 含水量、含氧量小于5ppm

2、檢查真空釬焊爐的真空系統、冷卻系統。

熱電偶燒毀

1、熱電偶與碳氈相碰

2、熱電偶不密封

1、排除真空釬焊爐加熱器 。

2、檢查密封圈。

絕緣電阻<1000

       電極周圍有碳纖維

 清除飛銅、烘爐處理、清理碳纖維。

真空閥開關失靈

1、壓縮空氣壓力不足

2、電磁閥故障(振動引起電磁體與

   殼體相對運動

1、保證氣壓不小于0.5MPa 。

2、檢修 、加橡膠墊壓緊。

機械泵故障

1、不能起動

2、旋轉方向反了

3、運轉不靈活

4、抽氣效率低

5、達不到真空度

1、檢查電機起動器開關的位置和過載保護裝置與冷卻水開關 。

2、更換電機三相中的二相接線。

3、按說明書修理。

4、油污染、換新油,如無改變則檢查真空系統其它部份。

5、排除油污染;更換軸端油封;打開鎮氣閥排空水分。

傳動部件運行故障

          限位失靈

把限位和行程開關撞擊裝置協調一致。

機械增壓泵故障

1、不動作

2、異常噪音

3、達不到真空度

1、 檢查電機起動器開關和過載保護器是否工作 。

2、 排除齒輪精度不夠,轉子動平衡不好;抽承偏擺誤差或

    損壞;聯軸節不同軸。

3、 更換軸端密封,調整轉子與轉子,轉子與定子,轉子與

    端蓋的間隙。

 
  

真空釬焊爐定期維護表
廠內進行的
每天      1. 檢查冷卻塔和儲水箱,按需要替換過濾器  。
          2. 依次把粗抽泵油過濾器移到下一泵,按需要替換過濾器。
          3. 檢查粗抽泵油位和油溫,聽聽機械上有無問題。
每周      1. 對全部真空爐做冷態泄露檢查,最大0.5Pa/H
          2. 檢查擴散泵,羅茨泵和維持泵的油位
          3. 給空氣壓縮機儲氣罐放氣(水)
          4.對所有真空爐控制系統進行檢查
每月      1 .校驗全部溫度儀表
          2. 替換控制箱內的全部空氣過濾器
          3. 給爐子的主閥門上機油和黃油
每三個月  1. 校驗儀表的校正儀      

                  2.
校驗全部真空儀表
                  3.
替換熱電偶進行檢驗
                  4.
真空爐9點均溫性測試


半年:  1.氬氣管路系統壓力測試
             2.
真空爐的熱態泄露試驗
             3.
露點表校驗,給真空泵換油
             4.
替換粗抽泵油和活門

每年: 1. 檢查并清刷全部配電柜電路板 
            2.
氬氣純度校驗
            3.
檢查主變壓器油位,替換粗抽泵油分離器
            4.
校驗試驗各電電氣儀表。

 
 
          真空釬焊爐熱電偶常見故障及處理
 
 

,
熱電極變質
故障現象
可能原因
處理方法
熱電勢比實際值。@示儀表指示值偏低)
熱電極短路
找出短路原因,如因潮濕所致,則需進行干燥;如因絕緣子損壞所致,則需更換絕緣子
熱電偶的接線柱處積灰,造成短路
清掃真空釬焊爐內積灰
補償導線線間短路
找出短路點,加強絕緣或更換補償導線
熱電偶熱電極變質
在長度允許的發問下,剪去變質段重新焊接,或更換新熱電偶
補償導線與熱電偶極性接反
重新接正確
補償導線與熱電偶不配套
更換相配套的補償導線
熱電偶安裝位置不錄或插入深度不符合要求
重新按規定安裝熱電偶
熱電偶冷端溫度補償不符合要求
調整熱電偶冷端補償器
熱電偶與顯示儀表不配套
更抽熱電偶或顯示儀表使之相配套
熱電勢比實際值大(顯示儀表指示值偏高)
熱電偶與顯示儀表不配套
更抽熱電偶或顯示儀表使之相配套
補償導線與熱電偶不配套
更換補償導線使之相配套
有直流干擾信號進入
排除直流干擾
熱電勢輸出不穩定
熱電偶接線柱與熱電極接觸不良
將接線柱螺絲擰緊
熱電偶測量線路絕緣破損,引起斷續短路或接地
找出故障點,修復絕緣
熱電偶安裝不牢或外部震動
緊固熱電偶,消除震動或采取減震措施
熱電極將斷未斷
修復或更換熱電偶
外界干擾(交流漏電,電磁場感應等)
查出干擾源,采用屏蔽措施
熱電偶熱電勢誤差大
更換熱電極
熱電偶安裝位置不當
改變安裝位置
熱電偶保護管表面積灰
清除積灰

真空釬焊爐壓升率不合格
一、漏氣
A、密封損壞漏氣,優先檢查真空釬焊爐門密封圈、電極密封圈、熱電偶密封圈等接口密封圈,一般由水壓欠造成真空釬焊爐密封圈受熱老化。
B、真空釬焊爐殼焊縫開造成內漏或外漏,氬弧焊焊接質量差造成,如果是內漏用氦質譜檢漏儀都檢不出來。需要加壓檢漏。
C、聯接的換熱器漏,真空釬焊爐爐后部分換熱器火焰焊接質量差造成,要對真空釬焊爐換熱器單獨檢漏。
D、閥門漏氣,真空釬焊爐常用對蝶閥、擋板閥、插板閥、球閥、電磁閥、薄膜, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 閥等閥門,閥門的密封圈在不干凈的環境中容易損壞密封圈,在有污染的環境中應該先用120號汽油清洗過濾網,在把閥和泵裝配好。
二、真空釬焊爐內部材料放氣
A、爐殼內壁,在南方天氣比較潮濕,真空釬焊爐開爐門后時間長,真空爐內加熱室吸潮之后,易造成漏氣的假象。
B、保溫隔熱材料放氣,真空釬焊爐用的隔熱材料一般有金屬、碳材料和陶瓷纖維,陶瓷纖維在低溫保溫效果好,但吸氣特大,碳材料與次之。
C、真空釬焊爐里后冷卻換熱器表面放氣,主要是因為換熱器的翅片面積特別大,吸附氣體之后還不容易放出來。
D、隨爐釬焊工裝夾具放氣、待釬焊產品的材料放氣、尤其是汽車EGR系統的產品ni基釬料裝配以后產品沒烘干就進真空釬焊
爐。解決以上問題需要進行烘爐。但烘爐對換熱器沒有多大效果,需要在產品進真空釬焊爐前單獨對產品烘干。真空釬焊爐需要在烘爐后充入氣體,啟動風機進行熱風循環才可能解決。
D、虛焊放氣及裝配螺紋孔內放氣,真空釬焊爐殼內壁焊接不好,石墨電極與銅電極沒有留放氣孔等,這個問題應該在設計制造時解決,實際使用中很難遇到。
三、儀表讀數
A、這主要是針對國內真空釬焊爐的真空計,國內真空計的讀數是將本來的對數關系使用了分段插值的分段直線關系,這會造成測試壓升率時,一段合格一段不合格。
B、真空計使用的電阻規有效測量值是0.1~2500Pa,國內儀表每次使用前都要進行滿度和零點的調整,如果沒有沒有調好,本來只有0.1Pa的變化可能變成1Pa的變化。
C、國外的真空記錄儀沒有國內的復雜,一般不需要調整,如果顯示不準的話,一般可以在大氣壓下復位就可以。
D、如果設備上有好幾種測量儀器,可以相互對照,麥氏計是一種絕對量的真空計,測量范圍為0.1~500Pa,可以用麥氏計對電子真空計進行校準。

怎么測真空釬焊爐的壓升率:

正確的測量方法是:烘爐完成之后,在干凈、冷態、空載的狀態下在t1到t2的時間段內測得真空度由P1到P2的兩個值,壓升率=P2-P1/t2-t1,P的單位為Pa,t的單位為小時,所以壓升率的單位為Pa/h。我國的標準是1.33Pa/h,國外多是0.67Pa/h,因為要與國際接軌,現在國內壓升率指標與多采用0.67Pa/h了。但國外的設備指標一般還考慮到設備的休積,所以取名為泄露率,單位為:Pa.L/S。
導致真空釬焊爐壓升率不合格的可能原因:
1、密封損壞漏氣,用丙酮優先檢查真空釬焊爐門密封圈、電極密封圈、熱電偶密封圈等接口密封圈,一般由水壓欠造成真空釬焊爐密封圈受熱老化。
2、真空釬焊爐殼焊縫開造成內漏或外漏,焊接質量差造成,如果是內漏用氦質譜檢漏儀都檢不出來。
3、聯接的換熱器漏,真空釬焊爐爐后部分換熱器焊接質量差造成,要對真空釬焊爐換熱器單獨檢漏。
4、閥門漏氣,真空釬焊爐常用對蝶閥、擋板閥、插板閥、球閥、電磁閥、薄膜閥等閥門,閥門的密封圈在不干凈的環境中容易損壞密封圈,在有污染的環境中應該先用120號汽油清洗閥和泵在進行裝配,并且烘干。

東俊真空釬焊工作室
地址:江蘇省揚州市維揚路349號
郵政編碼:225000
聯系人: 蔡東俊
SKYPE:jsyzcdj
聯系手機:13905275926
QQ:649200691
MSN:jsyzcdj@126.com
E-mail: jsyzcdj@126.com
網址:http://www.www.yxzhuce.cn


新加坡聯系地址:10 Anson Road #05-17
聯系人: Feng Guo An
聯系電話:+65-6756 3629
手機:+0065-6756 3629
傳 真: +0065-6754 8382
電子郵件:fengga@el.sg

德國聯系地址: Ringenkuhler Straße 26
34298 Helsa
聯系人:李向珍
聯系電話: 004956049180277
手機: 004956049180277
傳 真: 004956049180278
電子郵件info@china-market-expertise.de

 

 

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Vacuum brazing furnace daily failure and troubleshooting methods:

 

Failure phenomenon

 Causes of the failure

Troubleshooting solution of vacuum brazing furnace

Temperature control Failure

1、Thermocouple broken wire

2、Temper, ature control instrument failure

1、Replace the new thermocouple

2、According to the temperature control instrument manual maintenance

The vacuum brazing furnace does not reach the ultimate vacuum or time is too long

1、vacuum brazing furnace vacuum system failure

2、Vacuum brazing furnace body leakage, vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger leakage.

3、 The vacuum gauge resistance gauge and the ionization gauge damage

 

1、Check, Exclude

、Check the vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger

3、Replace the regulation of the vacuum gauge

The heating power does not reach the rated value

1、Magnetic voltage regulator failure

2、Graphite heating tube pollution, resistance increased

3、The new graphite tube resistivity does not match.

1、Maintenance of magnetic voltage regulator

2、Replace the new graphite heating tube

3、Check the graphite tube resistivity

The surface of the processing part is not bright

1、The cooling gas is not pure

2、the vacuum is too low

1、 to ensure that nitrogen (argon) gas purity of more than 99.9996%. Water content, oxygen content less than 5ppm

2、Check the vacuum system and cooling system of vacuum brazing furnace.

Thermocouple burned down

1、thermocouple and carbon felt touch

2、thermocouple is not sealed

1、Excluding vacuum brazing furnace heater

2、Check the sealing ring

 

Insulation resistance<1000 Ω

 

  The electrodes are surrounded by carbon fibers

      Remove the fly copper, oven treatment, clean up the carbon fiber

Vacuum valve switch failure

Compressed air pressure is insufficient

2、Solenoid valve Failure (Vibration caused by the relative movement of the electromagnet and the shell)

  

1、 Ensure that air pressure is not less than 0.5 MPa

2、Maintenance, plus rubber pad and tighten

Mechanical pump failure

1、Can not start

2、 The direction of rotation reversed

3、The operation is not flexible

4、Low pumping efficiency

5、Can not reach the degree of vacuum

1、Check the motor starter switch position and overload protection device and cooling water switch

2、Replace the two phase wiring in the motor three phase

3、Repair according to the instructions

4、Oil pollution, for new oil, if no change to check the other parts of the vacuum system.

5、The exclusion of oil pollution; replace shaft end oil seal;open the gas ballast valve

The transmission parts Running fault

      Limit failure

Put the limit and impact devices in harmony

Mechanical booster pump failure

1、No action

2、Abnormal noise

3、Not reach the degree of vacuum

1、Check whether the motor starter switch and overload protector work

2、 Eliminate the gear accuracy is not enough, the rotor dynamic balance is not good; bearing deflection error or damage; coupling different shafts

3、 , Re, pl, ac, e , th, e , sh, af, t , se, al, , , ad, ju, st the r, otor and rotor, rotor and stator, rotor and end cover gap

 

 

,

Common Faults and Treatment of Thermocouple in Vacuum Brazing Furnace

 

Failure phenomenon

Possible causes

Processing method

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The thermoelectric potential is smaller than the actual value (display instrument indication value is low)

Thermal electrode short circuit

To find out the cause of short circuit,  such as due to moisture,it needs to be dry; If the insulator is damaged, the insulator must be replaced.

The junction of the thermocouple is accumulated dust, causing a short circuit

Cleaning of dust in vacuum brazing furnace

Short circuit between compensation conductor line

Find the short circuit point, strengthen insulation or replace compensating wires

Thermocouple thermal electrode metamorphism

In the range of allowable length, cut off the metamorphic section re-welding, or replace the new thermocouple

The compensation conductor wire is reversed with the thermocouple polarity

Re-connect correctly

Compensation wire and thermocouple are not matched

Replace the matching compensation wire

Thermocouple installation location is incorrect or insertion depth does not meet requirements

Re-install Thermocouples as required

Thermocouple cold junction temperature compensation does not meet the requirements

Adjust the thermocouple cold junction compensator

Thermocouple and display instruments are not matched

Replace thermocouple or display instrument to make it match

The thermoelectric potential is larger than the actual value (display instrument indication value is high)

Thermocouple and display instruments are not matched

Replace thermocouple or display instrument to make it match

Compensation wire and thermocouple are not matched

Replace the matching compensation wire

There is a DC interference signal to enter

Eliminate DC interference

Thermoelectric output is unstable

Compensating conductor is in poor contact with the hot electrode

Tighten the terminal screws

Thermocouple measuring line insulation damage, causing intermittent short circuit or grounding

Find fault points and repair insulation

Thermocouple installation is not strong or external vibration

Tighten the thermocouple, eliminate vibration or take shock measures

The thermal electrode will be broken

Repair or replace thermocouple

External disturbance (AC leakage, electromagnetic induction, etc.)

Detection of interference sources, the use of shielding measures

Large error of thermocouple thermoelectric potential

Thermoelectrode metamorphism

Replace the hot electrode

Improper installation position of Thermocouple

Change the installation location

Thermocouple protection tube surface dust

Clear dust

Vacuum brazing furnace pressure rise rate unqualified
 
First, the Leak
A. Seal damage leakage, priority check vacuum brazing door seal ring, electrode seal ring, thermocouple sealing ring and other interface seals, generally by water pressure due to vacuum brazing furnace sealing ring aging.
B. Vacuum brazing furnace shell welding cracks resulting in internal leakage or external leakage, poor welding quality caused, If it's an internal leak, it's not detectable by helium mass leak detector.
C. Connection heat exchanger leakage, caused by poor welding quality of heat exchanger in the latter part of vacuum brazing furnace. Need to separate leak detection for vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger.
D. Valve leakage,vacuum brazing furnace commonly used butterfly valve, baffle valve,  flashboard valve, ball valve, solenoid valves, membrane valves and other valves, the valve seal ring in the dirty environment is easy to damage, in a polluted environment should be filtered and then into the valve and pump.
Second, the vacuum brazing furnace internal material deflated
A. The inner wall of the shell, in the south more humid weather, moisture absorption, easy to cause leakage of the illusion.
B. Thermal insulation materials deflated, vacuum brazing furnace insulation is generally metal, carbon materials and ceramic fiber, ceramic fiber in low-temperature insulation effect is good, but inspiratory large,carbon material and second.
C. Vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger deflation, mainly because the heat exchanger fin area is particularly large, adsorption gas is not easy to release.
D. With the furnace brazing fixture deflated, to be brazed product material deflated, especially the car EGR system products Ni-based solder assembly after the product did not dry into the vacuum brazing furnace.To solve the above problems need to bake oven. But the bake oven does not have much effect on the heat exchanger,  and needs to be dried separately before the product enters the vacuum brazing furnace. The vacuum brazing furnace needs to be filled with gas after the oven, start the fan for hot air circulation can be resolved.
E. Virtual welding deflated and assembly threaded hole is deflated, vacuum brazing furnace shell inner wall welding is bad, graphite electrode and the copper electrode did not leave a vent hole, etc., this problem should be solved during design and manufacture, it's hard to meet in practical use.
Third, the instrument readings
A. This is mainly for the domestic vacuum brazing furnace vacuum gauge, the domestic vacuum gauge reading is the original logarithmic relationship using the segmentation of the interpolation of the linear relationship between the line, which will result in test pressure rise rate, a section of qualified and a section of unqualified.
B. Vacuum gauge used resistance gauge effective measurement value is 0.1 ~ 2500 Pa, the domestic instrument should be used before the full and zero adjustment, if there is no tune, had only 0.1Pa changes may become 1Pa changes.
C. The foreign vacuum recorder measurement is not complicated and generally does not need to be adjusted, and if the display is not allowed, generally can be reset at atmospheric pressure can be.
D. If there are several measuring instruments on the device, they can be compared with each other, McLeod gauge is an absolute amount of vacuum gauge with a measuring range of 0.1~500PA,  you can use McLeod gauge to calibrate the electronic vacuum gauge.
Regular maintenance table for vacuum brazing furnaces
In the factory

Day

1.Check the cooling tower and the storage tank and replace the filter as needed

2.Move the coarse pump oil filter to the next pump in turn ,replace the filter as needed

3.Check the crude pump oil level and oil temperature, listen to the mechanical problems

 

 

Weekly

1. All vacuum furnace to do cold leakage inspection, the maximum 0.5Pa / H

2.Check diffusion pump, roots pump and maintain pump oil level

3.air compressor release air

4.Check all vacuum furnace control systems

Monthly

1.Check all temperature instruments

2.Replace all air filters in the control cabinet

3.Put the oil and butter on the main valve of the furnace

Every three months

1.Calibration instrument for calibration instrument

2.Check all vacuum instruments

3.Replace the thermocouple for inspection

4.Vacuum furnace temperature  uniformity  test

Six months

1.Argon p, , , , , , , ip, eline sys, tem pressure test

2.Vacuum furnace thermal leakage test

3. Check the dew point meter, change oil for vacuum pump

4. Replace the crude pump oil and the valve

, , <, P lign="center" a, e="m: frame; mso-element-wrap: around; mso-element-anchor-vertical: paragraph; mso-element-anchor-horizontal: page; mso-element-left: 42.25pt; mso-element-top: -30.8pt; mso-height-rule: exactly; TEX: center; mso-ele: 9.0pt" styl, ass="MsoNormal" cl,>Every year

1. Check and brush all circuit boards

2. Argon Purity Calibration

3.Check the main transformer oil level, replace the crude pump oil separator

4.Calibration test of each meter

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

   

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